The past decade has seen a significant increase in the number of agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals containing fluorine. Strategic introduction of fluorine into a molecule can modify the performance of an active ingredient:
- Fluorine can effectively protect vulnerable sites from oxidation leading to enhanced metabolic stability.
- The introduction of an electronegative fluorine atom can alter the efficacy of an active ingredient with minimal steric effects.
- Fluorine can impact the overall lipophilicity of the molecule, which impacts bio-availability.
Fluorointermediates impart key functionalities to pharmaceutical and agrochemical active ingredients. Fluorine can be found in anti-osteoporotics, human and animal antibacterial pharmaceutical active ingredients; and also in agrochemical fungicides and insecticides that are used to protect vegetable, grain, and citric fruit crops. A few of the corresponding product names include Falecalcitriol, Florfenicol, Garenoxacin, Acrinathrin, Hexaflumuron, Lufenuron, Novaluron, and Tetraconazole.